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New Research In Ohio Labs Brings Star Trek Technology To Life
Ohio is emerging as a global center of research in a branch of physics thatâ€™s stymied scientists for decades. Itâ€™s called Terahertz radiation, a band of light waves with potential uses that range from detecting cancer to uncovering art forgeries.
For those familiar with the original Star Trek series, they would remember the tricorder.Â Spock or McCoy could point the tricorder at anything, and instantly know its chemical makeup, see hidden objects, or diagnose diseases.Â A replica tricorder sits in the office of Teraphysics founder and president Jerry Mearini. As a fan of all things retro, and a physicist and entrepreneur, Mearini was inspired by the tricorder’s pretend powers.
â€œAnd when we started working on Terahertz devices, the first thing that came to my mind is weâ€™re building the worldâ€™s first Star Trek Tricorder,â€ Mearini said.
He says it may not be science fiction much longer.
â€œWeâ€™re not building the tricorder itself, weâ€™re building the engine that drives it,â€ Mearini said.
The engine is a credit-card sized, high-power Terahertz generatorâ€” technology thatâ€™s eluded scientists since the 1960s.
Light is a spectrum. On one end you have high-energy, high-frequency X-rays; on the other end, low frequency radio waves â€“ like the ones your car antenna captures. In the middle of the spectrum is visible light that you see all around you.Â People have made use of practically every part of that spectrum in one way or another, except for one. The Terahertz frequencies.
T-rays, as theyâ€™re called, fall between the heavily utilized wavelengths of infrared radiationâ€”think night vision goggles and microwaves.
The Terahertz gap
But the equally promising Terahertz range has up until now been relatively inaccessible through existing technologies.Â Itâ€™s been called the Terahertz gap.
â€œI wouldnâ€™t describe it as a gap, but it is the spectral region thatâ€™s had the least attention, the fewest man years applied to it,â€ saidÂ Frank De Lucia, a physics professor at Ohio State. De Lucia is a pioneer in the field of Terahertz research.Â â€œAnd I think thereâ€™s a lot more virgin territory to explore and a lot more virgin things to find simply because itâ€™s not been worked on much as a function of time.Â And part of the reason for that is that itâ€™s been difficult and expensive to build sources.â€
And De Lucia says the practical, portable Terahertz source that Jerry Mearini has created is a significant jump forward.
Mearini said the tiny gold and diamond Terahertz generator is based on decades-old technology married to todayâ€™s nano-fabrication techniques. It’s about half the size of a human hair.
â€œItâ€™s a vacuum tube, but a very modern day vacuum tube,” Mearini said. “But not unlike the glass vacuum tubes that are in my guitar amp at home, just a much cooler one.â€
It took Mearini and his team 10 years of long nights to get it to work.
A new breakthrough
Teraphysics announced the breakthrough last month.
â€œItâ€™s a paradigm shift because it would enable a whole class of new experiments that have not been conducted to date, or have not been conducted well to date, because of the lack of power in that frequency region,â€ saidÂ Elliott Brown, an expert in Terahertz technology at Wright State University in Dayton.
Brown sees enormous potential for the Teraphysicsâ€™ device, especially in biomedical imaging. In his lab, he uses T-rays to detect skin cancer, to diagnose burns, and to analyze DNA.
At Teraphysics in Cleveland, Mearini sees the potential of his device to identify chemicals, even at a distance.
â€œThe most interesting aspect of Terahertz is that, in that frequency range, you can unambiguously identify molecular species, because most molecular species in that frequency range exhibit what we refer to as resonant signatures,â€ Mearini said.
Uses include public safety
The Terahertz spectrum can also â€˜seeâ€™ through clothing and paper packaging.Â Itâ€™s being tested in next generation airport scanners to detect hidden objects, or even the chemical signature of bomb material.Â T-rays are being used to link computer systems through high bandwidth wireless, also in secure communications, and data transfer.Â Other uses include inspection of paint and coatings, even uncovering art forgeries.
â€œItâ€™s this unique area within the electro-magnetic spectrum that shows so much promise for so many applications that has really been tapped until now,â€ Mearini said.
The list of potential uses for Terahertz devices sounds like science fiction, but one Cleveland company, and researchers across Ohio, may soon make them a reality.